Microglia and Tumors

Dyck JR, Fliegel L (1995) Specific activation of the Na+/H+ exchanger gene during neuronal differentiation of embryonal carcinoma cells. J Biol Chem 270:10420_10427

Hartung HP, Archelos JJ, Zielasek J, Gold R, Koltzenburg M, Reiners KH, Toyka KV (1995) Circulating adhesion molecules and inflammatory mediators in demyelination: a review. Neurology 45:S22_S32

Hayashi M, Luo Y, Laning J, Strieter RM, Dorf ME (1995) Production and function of monocyte chemoattractant protein_1 and other beta_chemokines in murine glial cells. J Neuroimmunol 60:143_150

Hu S, Sheng WS, Peterson PK, Chao CC (1995) Cytokine modulation of murine microglial cell superoxide production. Glia 13:45_50

Jaranowska A, Bussolino F, Sogos V, Arese M, Lauro GM, Gremo F (1995) Platelet_activating factor production by human fetal microglia. Effect of lipopolysaccharides and tumor necrosis factor_alpha. Mol Chem Neuropathol 24:95_106

Maier WE, Brown HW, Tilson HA, Luster MI, Harry GJ (1995) Trimethyltin increases interleukin (IL)_1 alpha, IL_6 and tumor necrosis factor alpha mRNA levels in rat hippocampus. J Neuroimmunol 59:65_75

Meda L, Cassatella MA, Szendrei GI, Otvos LJ, Baron P, Villalba M, Ferrari D, Rossi F (1995) Activation of microglial cells by beta_amyloid protein and interferon_gamma. Nature 374:647_650

Murphy GMJ, Jia XC, Song Y, Ong E, Shrivastava R, Bocchini V, Lee YL, Eng LF (1995) Macrophage inflammatory protein 1_alpha mRNA expression in an immortalized microglial cell line and cortical astrocyte cultures. J Neurosci Res 40:755_763

Panek RB, Benveniste EN (1995) Class II MHC gene expression in microglia. Regulation by the cytokines IFN_gamma, TNF_alpha, and TGF_beta. J Immunol 154:2846_2854

Renno T, Krakowski M, Piccirillo C, Lin JY, Owens T (1995) TNF_alpha expression by resident microglia and infiltrating leukocytes in the central nervous system of mice with experimental allergic encephalomyelitis. Regulation by Th1 cytokines. J Immunol 154:944_953

Roessler K, Suchanek G, Breitschopf H, Kitz K, Matula C, Lassmann H, Koos WT (1995) Detection of tumor necrosis factor_alpha protein and messenger RNA in human glial brain tumors: comparison of immunohistochemistry with in situ hybridization using molecular probes. J Neurosurg 83:291_297

Ruuls SR, Bauer J, Sontrop K, Huitinga I, 't Hart BA, Dijkstra CD (1995) Reactive oxygen species are involved in the pathogenesis of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis in Lewis rats. J Neuroimmunol 56:207_217

Shrikant P, Weber E, Jilling T, Benveniste EN (1995) Intercellular adhesion molecule_1 gene expression by glial cells. Differential mechanisms of inhibition by IL_10 and IL_6. J Immunol 155:1489_1501

Tyor WR, Wesselingh SL, Griffin JW, McArthur JC, Griffin DE (1995) Unifying hypothesis for the pathogenesis of HIV_associated dementia complex, vacuolar myelopathy, and sensory neuropathy. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr Hum Retrovirol 9:379_388

Viola JJ, Ram Z, Walbridge S, Oshiro EM, Trapnell B, Tao Cheng JH, Oldfield EH (1995) Adenovirally mediated gene transfer into experimental solid brain tumors and leptomeningeal cancer cells. J Neurosurg 82:70_76

Walker DG, Kim SU, McGeer PL (1995) Complement and cytokine gene expression in cultured microglial derived from postmortem human brains. J Neurosci Res 40:478_493

Williams KC, Dooley NP, Ulvestad E, Waage A, Blain M, Yong VW, Antel JP (1995) Antigen presentation by human fetal astrocytes with the cooperative effect of microglia or the microglial_derived cytokine IL_1. J Neurosci 15:1869_1878

Wilt SG, Milward E, Zhou JM, Nagasato K, Patton H, Rusten R, Griffin DE, O'Connor M, Dubois Dalcq M (1995) In vitro evidence for a dual role of tumor necrosis factor_alpha in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 encephalopathy. Ann Neurol 37:381_394

Yeung MC, Pulliam L, Lau AS (1995) The HIV envelope protein gp120 is toxic to human brain_cell cultures through the induction of interleukin_6 and tumor necrosis factor_alpha. AIDS 9:137_143

Antel JP, Williams K, Blain M, McRea E, McLaurin J (1994) Oligodendrocyte lysis by CD4+ T cells independent of tumor necrosis factor. Ann Neurol 35:341_348

Antel JP, Williams K, Blain M, McRea E, McLaurin J (1994) Oligodendrocyte lysis by CD4+ T cells independent of tumor necrosis factor. Ann Neurol 35:341_348

Atanassov CL, Muller CD, Sarhan S, Knodgen B, Rebel G, Seiler N (1994) Effect of ammonia on endocytosis, cytokine production and lysosomal enzyme activity of a microglial cell line. Res Immunol 145:277_288

Benveniste EN (1994) Cytokine circuits in brain. Implications for AIDS dementia complex. Res Publ Assoc Res Nerv Ment Dis 72:71_88

Blasi E, Puliti M, Pitzurra L, Barluzzi R, Mazzolla R, Adami C, Cox GW, Bistoni F (1994) Comparative studies on functional and secretory properties of macrophage cell lines derived from different anatomical sites. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol 9:207_215

Cash E, Minty A, Ferrara P, Caput D, Fradelizi D, Rott O (1994) Macrophage_inactivating IL_13 suppresses experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in rats. J Immunol 153:4258_4267

Chao CC, Gekker G, Sheng WS, Hu S, Tsang M, Peterson PK (1994) Priming effect of morphine on the production of tumor necrosis factor_alpha by microglia: implications in respiratory burst activity and human immunodeficiency virus_1 expression. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 269:198_203

Chao CC, Gekker G, Hu S, Peterson PK (1994) Human microglial cell defense against Toxoplasma gondii. The role of cytokines. J Immunol 152:1246_1252

Claudio L, Martiney JA, Brosnan CF (1994) Ultrastructural studies of the blood_retina barrier after exposure to interleukin_1 beta or tumor necrosis factor_alpha. Lab Invest 70:850_861

Dhib Jalbut S, Hoffman PM, Yamabe T, Sun D, Xia J, Eisenberg H, Bergey G, Ruscetti FW (1994) Extracellular human T_cell lymphotropic virus type I Tax protein induces cytokine production in adult human microglial cells. Ann Neurol 36:787_790

Frei K, Malipiero U, Piani D, Fontana A (1994) Microglia and tumor rejection. Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol 20:206_208

Kida S, Ellison DW, Steart PV, Iannotti F, Weller RO (1994) Perivascular edema fluid pathway in astrocytic tumors. Acta Neurochir Suppl Wien 60:384_386

Kimura Kuroda J, Nagashima K, Yasui K (1994) Inhibition of myelin formation by HIV_1 gp120 in rat cerebral cortex culture. Arch Virol 137:81_99

Kleinschmidt A, Neumann M, Moller C, Erfle V, Brack Werner R (1994) Restricted expression of HIV1 in human astrocytes: molecular basis for viral persistence in the CNS. Res Virol 145:147_153

Kurpad SN, Wikstrand CJ, Bigner DD (1994) Immunobiology of malignant astrocytomas. Semin Oncol 21:149_161

Luber Narod J, Kage R, Leeman SE (1994) Substance P enhances the secretion of tumor necrosis factor_alpha from neuroglial cells stimulated with lipopolysaccharide. J Immunol 152:819_824

Lutz MB, Granucci F, Winzler C, Marconi G, Paglia P, Foti M, Assmann CU, Cairns L, Rescigno M, Ricciardi Castagnoli P (1994) Retroviral immortalization of phagocytic and dendritic cell clones as a tool to investigate functional heterogeneity. J Immunol Methods 174:269_279

Maeda Y, Matsumoto M, Hori O, Kuwabara K, Ogawa S, Yan SD, Ohtsuki T, Kinoshita T, Kamada T, Stern DM (1994) Hypoxia/reoxygenation_mediated induction of astrocyte interleukin 6: a paracrine mechanism potentially enhancing neuron survival. J Exp Med 180:2297_2308

Nagra RM, Heyes MP, Wiley CA (1994) Viral load and its relationship to quinolinic acid, TNF alpha, and IL_6 levels in the CNS of retroviral infected mice. Mol Chem Neuropathol 22:143_160

Nuovo GJ, Gallery F, MacConnell P, Braun A (1994) In situ detection of polymerase chain reaction_amplified HIV_1 nucleic acids and tumor necrosis factor_alpha RNA in the central nervous system. Am J Pathol 144:659_666

Otero GC, Merrill JE (1994) Cytokine receptors on glial cells. Glia 11:117_128

Peterson PK, Gekker G, Hu S, Anderson WR, Kravitz F, Portoghese PS, Balfour HHJ, Chao CC (1994) Morphine amplifies HIV_1 expression in chronically infected promonocytes cocultured with human brain cells. J Neuroimmunol 50:167_175

Peterson PK, Hu S, Anderson WR, Chao CC (1994) Nitric oxide production and neurotoxicity mediated by activated microglia from human versus mouse brain. J Infect Dis 170:457_460

Peterson PK, Gekker G, Hu S, Chao CC (1994) Anti_human immunodeficiency virus type 1 activities of U_90152 and U_75875 in human brain cell cultures. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 38:2465_2468

Philippon V, Vellutini C, Gambarelli D, Harkiss G, Arbuthnott G, Metzger D, Roubin R, Filippi P (1994) The basic domain of the lentiviral Tat protein is responsible for damages in mouse brain: involvement of cytokines. Virology 205:519_529

Piani D, Fontana A (1994) Involvement of the cystine transport system xc_ in the macrophage_induced glutamate_dependent cytotoxicity to neurons. J Immunol 152:3578_3585

Porrini AM, Reder AT (1994) IFN_gamma, IFN_beta, and PGE1 affect monokine secretion: relevance to monocyte activation in multiple sclerosis. Cell Immunol 157:428_438

Pulliam L, Clarke JA, McGuire D, McGrath MS (1994) Investigation of HIV_infected macrophage neurotoxin production from patients with AIDS dementia. Adv Neuroimmunol 4:195_198

Umehara F, Izumo S, Ronquillo AT, Matsumuro K, Sato E, Osame M (1994) Cytokine expression in the spinal cord lesions in HTLV_I_associated myelopathy. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 53:72_77

Vasilakos JP, Carroll RT, Emmerling MR, Doyle PD, Davis RE, Kim KS, Shivers BD (1994) Interleukin_1 beta dissociates beta_amyloid precursor protein and beta_amyloid peptide secretion. FEBS Lett 354:289_292

Williams K, Ulvestad E, Waage A, Antel JP, McLaurin J (1994) Activation of adult human derived microglia by myelin phagocytosis in vitro. J Neurosci Res 38:433_443

Wood PL (1994) Differential regulation of IL_1 alpha and TNF alpha release from immortalized murine microglia (BV_2). Life Sci 55:661_668

Yamabe T, Dhir G, Cowan EP, Wolf AL, Bergey GK, Krumholz A, Barry E, Hoffman PM, Dhib Jalbut S (1994) Cytokine_gene expression in measles_infected adult human glial cells. J Neuroimmunol 49:171_179

Chao CC, Hu S, Gekker G, Novick WJJ, Remington JS, Peterson PK (1993) Effects of cytokines on multiplication of Toxoplasma gondii in microglial cells. J Immunol 150:3404_3410

Chao CC, Molitor TW, Hu S (1993) Neuroprotective role of IL_4 against activated microglia. J Immunol 151:1473_1481

Corradin SB, Mauel J, Donini SD, Quattrocchi E, Ricciardi Castagnoli P (1993) Inducible nitric oxide synthase activity of cloned murine microglial cells. Glia 7:255_262

Cupp C, Taylor JP, Khalili K, Amini S (1993) Evidence for stimulation of the transforming growth factor beta 1 promoter by HIV_1 Tat in cells derived from CNS. Oncogene 8:2231_2236

Fischer HG, Bielinsky AK, Nitzgen B, Daubener W, Hadding U (1993) Functional dichotomy of mouse microglia developed in vitro: differential effects of macrophage and granulocyte/macrophage colony_stimulating factor on cytokine secretion and antitoxoplasmic activity. J Neuroimmunol 45:193_201

Gazzinelli RT, Eltoum I, Wynn TA, Sher A (1993) Acute cerebral toxoplasmosis is induced by in vivo neutralization of TNF_alpha and correlates with the down_regulated expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase and other markers of macrophage activation. J Immunol 151:3672_3681

Hartung HP (1993) Immune_mediated demyelination. Ann Neurol 33:563_567

Hartung HP (1993) Immune_mediated demyelination. Ann Neurol 33:563_567

Jun CD, Kim SH, Soh CT, Kang SS, Chung HT (1993) Nitric oxide mediates the toxoplasmastatic activity of murine microglial cells in vitro. Immunol Invest 22:487_501

Kuchelmeister K, Bergmann M, Gullotta F (1993) Cellular changes in the cerebellar granular layer in AIDS_associated PML. Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol 19:398_401

Lee SC, Liu W, Roth P, Dickson DW, Berman JW, Brosnan CF (1993) Macrophage colony_stimulating factor in human fetal astrocytes and microglia. Differential regulation by cytokines and lipopolysaccharide, and modulation of class II MHC on microglia. J Immunol 150:594_604

Lee SC, Dickson DW, Liu W, Brosnan CF (1993) Induction of nitric oxide synthase activity in human astrocytes by interleukin_1 beta and interferon_gamma. J Neuroimmunol 46:19_24

Lee SC, Liu W, Dickson DW, Brosnan CF, Berman JW (1993) Cytokine production by human fetal microglia and astrocytes. Differential induction by lipopolysaccharide and IL_1 beta. J Immunol 150:2659_2667

Lee TT, Martin FC, Merrill JE (1993) Lymphokine induction of rat microglia multinucleated giant cell formation. Glia 8:51_61

Levi G, Patrizio M, Bernardo A, Petrucci TC, Agresti C (1993) Human immunodeficiency virus coat protein gp120 inhibits the beta_adrenergic regulation of astroglial and microglial functions. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 90:1541_1545

Levi G, Patrizia M, Agresti C, Petrucci T, Bernardo A (1993) Use of rat microglial cells for the study of a possible mechanism of brain damage in AIDS. Clin Neuropathol 12:290_292

Martin FC, Anton PA, Gornbein JA, Shanahan F, Merrill JE (1993) Production of interleukin_1 by microglia in response to substance P: role for a non_classical NK_1 receptor. J Neuroimmunol 42:53_60

Merrill JE, Ignarro LJ, Sherman MP, Melinek J, Lane TE (1993) Microglial cell cytotoxicity of oligodendrocytes is mediated through nitric oxide. J Immunol 151:2132_2141

Nagra RM, Wong PK, Wiley CA (1993) Expression of major histocompatibility complex antigens and serum neutralizing antibody in murine retroviral encephalitis. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 52:163_173

Norris JG, Benveniste EN (1993) Interleukin_6 production by astrocytes: induction by the neurotransmitter norepinephrine. J Neuroimmunol 45:137_145

Peterson PK, Gekker G, Hu S, Chao CC (1993) Intracellular survival and multiplication of Toxoplasma gondii in astrocytes. J Infect Dis 168:1472_1478

Piani D, Frei K, Pfister HW, Fontana A (1993) Glutamate uptake by astrocytes is inhibited by reactive oxygen intermediates but not by other macrophage_derived molecules including cytokines, leukotrienes or platelet_activating factor. J Neuroimmunol 48:99_104

Righi M (1993) Modulation of cytokine expression by cAMP analogs in myc_immortalized microglial cell lines. Funct Neurol 8:359_363

Ruijs TC, Louste K, Brown EA, Antel JP (1993) Lysis of human glial cells by major histocompatibility complex_unrestricted CD4+ cytotoxic lymphocytes. J Neuroimmunol 42:105_111

Saito K, Chen CY, Masana M, Crowley JS, Markey SP, Heyes MP (1993) 4_Chloro_3_hydroxyanthranilate, 6_chlorotryptophan and norharmane attenuate quinolinic acid formation by interferon_gamma_stimulated monocytes (THP_1 cells). Biochem J 291:11_14

Schluter D, Deckert Schluter M, Schwendemann G, Brunner H, Hof H (1993) Expression of major histocompatibility complex class II antigens and levels of interferon_gamma, tumour necrosis factor, and interleukin_6 in cerebrospinal fluid and serum in Toxoplasma gondii_infected SCID and immunocompetent C.B_17 mice. Immunology 78:430_435

Sebire G, Hery C, Peudenier S, Tardieu M (1993) Adhesion proteins on human microglial cells and modulation of their expression by IL1 alpha and TNF alpha. Res Virol 144:47_52

Sebire G, Emilie D, Wallon C, Hery C, Devergne O, Delfraissy JF, Galanaud P, Tardieu M (1993) In vitro production of IL_6, IL_1 beta, and tumor necrosis factor_alpha by human embryonic microglial and neural cells. J Immunol 150:1517_1523

Shafit Zagardo B, Sharma N, Berman JW, Bornstein MB, Brosnan CF (1993) CSF_1 expression is upregulated in astrocyte cultures by IL_1 and TNF and affects microglial proliferation and morphology in organotypic cultures. Int J Dev Neurosci 11:189_198

Shafit Zagardo B, Sharma N, Berman JW, Bornstein MB, Brosnan CF (1993) CSF_1 expression is upregulated in astrocyte cultures by IL_1 and TNF and affects microglial proliferation and morphology in organotypic cultures. Int J Dev Neurosci 11:189_198

Thery C, Mallat M (1993) Influence of interleukin_1 and tumor necrosis factor alpha on the growth of microglial cells in primary cultures of mouse cerebral cortex: involvement of colony_stimulating factor 1. Neurosci Lett 150:195_199

Tyor WR, Glass JD, Baumrind N, McArthur JC, Griffin JW, Becker PS, Griffin DE (1993) Cytokine expression of macrophages in HIV_1_associated vacuolar myelopathy. Neurology 43:1002_1009

Williams KJ, Ulvestad E, Cragg L, Blain M, Antel JP (1993) Induction of primary T cell responses by human glial cells. J Neurosci Res 36:382_390

Zielasek J, Archelos JJ, Toyka KV, Hartung HP (1993) Expression of intercellular adhesion molecule_1 on rat microglial cells. Neurosci Lett 153:136_139

Andersson PB, Perry VH, Gordon S (1992) Intracerebral injection of proinflammatory cytokines or leukocyte chemotaxins induces minimal myelomonocytic cell recruitment to the parenchyma of the central nervous system. J Exp Med 176:255_259

Bernton EW, Bryant HU, Decoster MA, Orenstein JM, Ribas JL, Meltzer MS, Gendelman HE (1992) No direct neuronotoxicity by HIV_1 virions or culture fluids from HIV_1_infected T cells or monocytes. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 8:495_503

Bocchini V, Mazzolla R, Barluzzi R, Blasi E, Sick P, Kettenmann H (1992) An immortalized cell line expresses properties of activated microglial cells. J Neurosci Res 31:616_621

Chao CC, Hu S, Close K, Choi CS, Molitor TW, Novick WJ, Peterson PK (1992) Cytokine release from microglia: differential inhibition by pentoxifylline and dexamethasone. J Infect Dis 166:847_853

Constam DB, Philipp J, Malipiero UV, ten Dijke P, Schachner M, Fontana A (1992) Differential expression of transforming growth factor_beta 1, _beta 2, and _beta 3 by glioblastoma cells, astrocytes, and microglia. J Immunol 148:1404_1410

Frei K, Piani D, Malipiero UV, Van Meir E, de Tribolet N, Fontana A (1992) Granulocyte_macrophage colony_stimulating factor (GM_CSF) production by glioblastoma cells. Despite the presence of inducing signals GM_CSF is not expressed in vivo. J Immunol 148:3140_3146

Frei K, Nohava K, Malipiero UV, Schwerdel C, Fontana A (1992) Production of macrophage colony_stimulating factor by astrocytes and brain macrophages. J Neuroimmunol 40:189_195

Galea E, Feinstein DL, Reis DJ (1992) Induction of calcium_independent nitric oxide synthase activity in primary rat glial cultures. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 89:10945_10949

Ganter S, Northoff H, Mannel D, Gebicke Harter PJ (1992) Growth control of cultured microglia. J Neurosci Res 33:218_230

Hartung HP, Jung S, Stoll G, Zielasek J, Schmidt B, Archelos JJ, Toyka KV (1992) Inflammatory mediators in demyelinating disorders of the CNS and PNS. J Neuroimmunol 40:197_210

Hoffman PM, Dhib Jalbut S, Mikovits JA, Robbins DS, Wolf AL, Bergey GK, Lohrey NC, Weislow OS, Ruscetti FW (1992) Human T_cell leukemia virus type I infection of monocytes and microglial cells in primary human cultures. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 89:11784_11788

Loughlin AJ, Woodroofe MN, Cuzner ML (1992) Regulation of Fc receptor and major histocompatibility complex antigen expression on isolated rat microglia by tumour necrosis factor, interleukin_1 and lipopolysaccharide: effects on interferon_gamma induced activation. Immunology 75:170_175

Low KG, Allen RG, Melner MH (1992) Differential regulation of proenkephalin expression in astrocytes by cytokines. Endocrinology 131:1908_1914

Merrill JE, Kono DH, Clayton J, Ando DG, Hinton DR, Hofman FM (1992) Inflammatory leukocytes and cytokines in the peptide_induced disease of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis in SJL and B10.PL mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 89:574_578

Merrill JE, Koyanagi Y, Zack J, Thomas L, Martin F, Chen IS (1992) Induction of interleukin_1 and tumor necrosis factor alpha in brain cultures by human immunodeficiency virus type 1. J Virol 66:2217_2225

Merrill JE (1992) Tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin 1 and related cytokines in brain development: normal and pathological. Dev Neurosci 14:1_10

Peterson PK, Gekker G, Hu S, Schoolov Y, Balfour HHJ, Chao CC (1992) Microglial cell upregulation of HIV_1 expression in the chronically infected promonocytic cell line U1: the role of tumor necrosis factor_alpha. J Neuroimmunol 41:81_87

Piani D, Spranger M, Frei K, Schaffner A, Fontana A (1992) Macrophage_induced cytotoxicity of N_methyl_D_aspartate receptor positive neurons involves excitatory amino acids rather than reactive oxygen intermediates and cytokines. Eur J Immunol 22:2429_2436

Sawada M, Suzumura A, Marunouchi T (1992) TNF alpha induces IL_6 production by astrocytes but not by microglia. Brain Res 583:296_299

Schneider J, Hofman FM, Apuzzo ML, Hinton DR (1992) Cytokines and immunoregulatory molecules in malignant glial neoplasms. J Neurosurg 77:265_273

Simmons ML, Murphy S (1992) Induction of nitric oxide synthase in glial cells. J Neurochem 59:897_905

Tyor WR, Glass JD, Griffin JW, Becker PS, McArthur JC, Bezman L, Griffin DE (1992) Cytokine expression in the brain during the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Ann Neurol 31:349_360

Zajicek JP, Wing M, Scolding NJ, Compston DA (1992) Interactions between oligodendrocytes and microglia. A major role for complement and tumour necrosis factor in oligodendrocyte adherence and killing. Brain 115:1611_1631

Achim CL, Schrier RD, Wiley CA (1991) Immunopathogenesis of HIV encephalitis. Brain Pathol 1:177_184

Bourdiol F, Toulmond S, Serrano A, Benavides J, Scatton B (1991) Increase in omega 3 (peripheral type benzodiazepine) binding sites in the rat cortex and striatum after local injection of interleukin_1, tumour necrosis factor_alpha and lipopolysaccharide. Brain Res 543:194_200

Chiang CS, McBride WH (1991) Radiation enhances tumor necrosis factor alpha production by murine brain cells. Brain Res 566:265_269

Chung IY, Norris JG, Benveniste EN (1991) Differential tumor necrosis factor alpha expression by astrocytes from experimental allergic encephalomyelitis_susceptible and _resistant rat strains. J Exp Med 173:801_811

Fillit H, Ding WH, Buee L, Kalman J, Altstiel L, Lawlor B, Wolf Klein G (1991) Elevated circulating tumor necrosis factor levels in Alzheimer's disease. Neurosci Lett 129:318_320

Hetier E, Ayala J, Bousseau A, Prochiantz A (1991) Modulation of interleukin_1 and tumor necrosis factor expression by beta_adrenergic agonists in mouse ameboid microglial cells. Exp Brain Res 86:407_413

Jung HW, Berens ME, Krouwer HG, Rosenblum ML (1991) A three_dimensional micro_organ culture system optimized for in vitro growth of human malignant brain tumors. Neurosurgery 29:390_398

Merrill JE, Chen IS (1991) HIV_1, macrophages, glial cells, and cytokines in AIDS nervous system disease. FASEB J 5:2391_2397

Merrill JE, Zimmerman RP (1991) Natural and induced cytotoxicity of oligodendrocytes by microglia is inhibitable by TGF beta. Glia 4:327_331

Merrill JE (1991) Effects of interleukin_1 and tumor necrosis factor_alpha on astrocytes, microglia, oligodendrocytes, and glial precursors in vitro. Dev Neurosci 13:130_137

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Selmaj K, Raine CS, Cannella B, Brosnan CF (1991) Identification of lymphotoxin and tumor necrosis factor in multiple sclerosis lesions. J Clin Invest 87:949_954

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